PADR programme under grant agreement No 831379.

EU
 
 
 
 

SOLOMON

Strategy-Oriented anaLysis Of the Market fOrces in EU defeNce

About SOLOMON

Strategy-Oriented anaLysis Of the Market fOrces in EU defeNce is a coordination and support action that has received funding from the European Union's Preparatory Action for Defence Research - PADR programme under grant agreement No 831379.
Objective of the project is to provide the methodologies and tools to the EU to ensure that the industries responsible for the delivery of the EU armament systems and services could rely on a trusted supply and that in turn EU, as a whole, could overcome the issues related to critical defence technological dependencies.
SOLOMON project intends to merge the two complementary visions of grand strategy (as it emerges from EU geo/political/economic postures) and business strategy (as it emerges from the Michael Porter's value chain theory) in order to outline the possible roadmaps for tackling the supply risk of the EU armament systems in a world of changing strategies, emerging technologies and mutating government restrictions.

News

The Consortium

Coordinator: Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A. - Italy
Engineering is the leading Italian software and services group, with 9,000 employees and 50 sites distributed in Italy, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Republic of Serbia, South America (Brazil and Argentina) and United States, a consolidated revenue portfolio in 2016 of about 934,6 million Euros.
Engineering has a consolidated presence on all vertical markets and operates through its 4 business units - Public Administration & Healthcare, Telco & Utilities, Industry & Services, Finance - supported by cross-business unit centres of competence and by the Research and Innovation Department which, with its 250 resources, has the dual role of promoting research on software at an international level and transferring innovation to the production cycle of the business structures.
The Group operates in the outsourcing and cloud computing market via an integrated network of 4 data centres located in Pont-Saint-Martin (AO), Turin, Vicenza and Milan, equipped with infrastructure aligned to the best technological, quality and security standards.
The Group invests about 30 million Euro/year in research, with about 250 researchers, more than 70 ongoing national and international research projects and 4 development laboratories. Engineering is core partner of EIT Digital (Trento node of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology), co-founder of the Big Data Value cPPP, co-founder of the European initiative Future Internet PPP, partner of the Alliance for the Internet of Things (AIOTI PPP), board member of the European Organisation for Security EOS, partnership board member of the European Cyber Security Organisation (ECSO), and co-founder of the initiative NESSI (Networked European Software and Service Initiative).
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
ENG will coordinate all the activities of management of the project taking into account all the available assets, variables, costs, communication performance, risks and quality levels to allow all the participants to collaborate into the best conditions during co-located and remote working sessions. The company will hold the duty to interact with the Commission to provide progress reports and relevant information during the evolution of the project. Moreover ENG will be responsible of the technical activities on WP5, will support the consortium in the methodology and roadmap for WP4 and will participate to the description of the cyber armaments systems in WP3.
Scientific and technical coordinator: Zanasi & Partners - Italy

Founded in 2006, Zanasi Alessandro Srl ("Zanasi & Partners") is a research and advisory company, incorporated in Italy and active internationally. It serves its clients by focusing on economic analysis and policy definitions related to the application of technology to security and defence issues. Z&P has received funding from the European Commission for over 20 security and defence research projects.
As an advisory company, Z&P's clients include European Commission's DGs and international institutions (e.g. ESA, FRONTEX, ENISA, etc.), governmental agencies, and large private organisations (e.g. GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Siemens AG, etc.).
Although listed in SOLOMON under the "Defence research organisations" category, Z&P has sold security services to Algeria and Saudia Arabia governments (although not supported by any "offset" or "G2G" agreement or any other governmental support).
Z&P's professionals took part in the Italian and EU efforts for rebuilding the Albanian National Police and for supporting the Kosovo government.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
Z&P's President, Ing. Alessandro ZANASI, will cover the role of scientific-technical coordinator of the SOLOMON project.
Zanasi & Partners, in addition to leading various tasks, will coordinate WP3 and WP4.
In general, Z&P will provide a major contribute to the project, by focusing in particular on the following aspects:

 

  • Analysis of the value system of the EU defence industry, by applying Porter's value chain theory to the main defence domains, as identified thanks to a specific taxonomy that will be developed during the project;
  • Definition of the methodology for assessing the criticalities affecting the armaments systems produced by the EU defence industry and used by the EU armed forces;
  • Elaboration of roadmaps and business plans to help the EU industry overcoming the criticalities highlighted during the project.

Z&P
Expert System France - France

Founded in 1989, Expert System S.p.A. (ES) is an Italian small-medium data analytics and semantic intelligence company that has developed a proprietary state-of-the-art software technology that understands the meaning of written language. Expert System is headquartered in Modena, Italy and has offices in US, UK, France, Spain and Germany.
In 2015, ES acquired TEMIS SA and established ES France as the company's French branch. The expertise of ES includes also the management of most common standards for importing and mapping available customer ontologies in order to facilitate interoperability (transfer and normalization tasks).

 
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
ESF will lead the task related the SOLOMON taxonomy creation on WP2. The focus will be on a new mapping military and dual-use items taking into account also existing taxonomies used at European level.
ESF will be involved in tasks related to WP4 for helping partners and end-users to link SOLOMON taxonomy with critical technology building blocks, specific components and raw materials.
ESF, as a consequence of its expertise on Big Data analytics, semantics and SW development, will help partners in WP5 on activities related either to data model design and the defining of the SOLOMON Data Warehouse or to different SW components integration, final test and merging with PYTHIA components. ESF, at the end, will lead WP6 dedicated to dissemination and exploitation and will be responsible for the communication, disse
mination and exploitation activities in SOLOMON.

ESF
Fondazione ICSA (Intelligence Culture And Strategic Analysis) (ICSA) - Italy

FONDAZIONE ICSA is a non-governmental body, a centre of analysis and of cultural processing that deals in innovative ways with security, defence and intelligence issues.
Its mission is to analyze the main aspects of national and foreign security issues, the evolution of military defence models with respect to external threats and the increasing criminal and illegal phenomena in Italy and abroad.
In this context, ICSA also analyzes the main scenarios regarding the technological evolution and all possible impacts that these developments might have on the defence industry, outlining possible critical issues in European weapon systems due to foreign dependencies for their components.
In addition, it observes the growing role of cyber and technological security of the State and its individual citizens.
The President of the Foundation is General Leonardo Tricarico, former Italian Air Force Chief of Staff.
The Scientific Committee is composed of academic and professional personalities with outstanding expertise in matters of defence, security and intelligence and constitutes an essential organ of the Foundation.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
The main role of ICSA within the SOLOMON project will be played within the context of WP2, where ICSA can leverage its expertise on armament systems and related trade regulations for leading the analysis of the relevant regulatory framework surrounding the work to be carried out during the project.
ICSA will also provide a major contribution to work package 3, helping in the analysis of the value chain of the EU defence industry, with a particular focus on space-related armaments.
ICSA will also be actively involved in the consortium's efforts to disseminate project results across the European security and defence community.

ICSA
Hawk Associates Ltd - United Kingdom

Hawk is an open source intelligence and analyst firm offering strategic, operational and technical support to organisations within the Defence and Security sectors. The company is dedicated to providing on-going intelligence-led services including market analysis and forecasting, technology and risk intelligence and supply chain security and risk.
Using OSINT, domain expertise and a proven analytical capability, the company enables organisations to address their most critical challenges and gain the insight and capabilities they need to exploit information effectively and make better decisions.
Hawk has many years of experience providing supply chain mapping and supply chain risk assessments based on company, product, technology and material investigations and analysis Special focus is placed on improving intelligence tradecraft and developing methodologies for analytical and strategic foresight.
The company has worked with a multitude of Ministries of Defence as well as private sector clients. Hawk is a member of ADS in the UK and is ISO 9001:2008 registered for Information Management.

 
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
Hawk will use its expertise to support activities within WP2 and and WP5. Further support will be given to elements within WP1 (project management) and WP6 (dissemination and exploitation).
This will draw on Hawk's experience in supply chain analysis and help understand the constraints of the SOLOMON environment (WP2). Hawk will support the mapping of current technologies, components and material that are restricted - according to the domain of this project – within the work to be done for WP5, in particular the data model design.

Hawk Associates Limited
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik - German

The German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP) is Germany's network for foreign policy. As an independent, non-partisan, and non-profit membership organization, think tank, and publisher, the DGAP has been promoting public debate on foreign policy in Germany for 60 years.

The DGAP's goals are:
  • to promote and contribute to foreign policy debate in Germany,
  • to advise decision makers from politics, business, and civil society
  • to inform the public on foreign policy issues.

To achieve this, the DGAP research institute conducts policy-oriented research at the interface of politics, business, science and media. More than 30 foreign policy experts work in ten research programs on the thematic priorities of the DGAP. These priorities are structured according to geographical criteria (regions, continents) as well as taking into account functional relationships (economy, safety). In addition, the discussion in the foreign policy community is organized and moderated in numerous expert conferences, discussion groups and study and project groups with the participation of high-ranking decision-makers from politics and business. Research and exchange then flow into numerous studies and analyses on current foreign policy issues and serve to develop concrete solutions. In this sense, the DGAP research institute sees itself as a modern think-tank, consultant and driving force for operational foreign policy.
The Security, Defence, Armaments Program at the DGAP advances the debate at European and international level through its many cooperation projects and relations with governmental, non-governmental, and international bodies. In 2017/2018, a particular research focus of the program is the analysis of armaments innovation, security and defence technological developments and the impact of Brexit on defence industry in Europe.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
DGAP will lead work package 2, dedicated to the definition of the "SOLOMON environment". Besides coordinating the WP, within work package 2 DGAP will prominently focus on analysing the supply risks affecting the EU defence industries and their value system. DGAP will also be involved in other tasks, in particular in the validation of the SOLOMON software platform, to be performed in T5.5.
Bulgarian Defence Institute "Professor Tsvetan Lazarov" - Bulgaria

Bulgarian Defence Institute "Professor Tsvetan Lazarov" is the main scientific-research, testing-design and expert-technical structure in the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian Defence Institutes' work is focused to:

  • Scientific-research activities, scientific-practical activities, development and experimental design activities in the sphere of Armaments, C4I Systems, Military Techniques, Logistic Equipment and Materials
  • Support to the Analysis of the situation of the Armaments, C4I Systems, and Military Techniques, Logistic Equipment and materials and working out of perspective prognoses on their development.
  • Support to the Integrated Project Teams through taking part in the preparation, scientific monitoring and complete implementation of the defence programs and projects.
  • Reproduction of scientific personnel through education in doctoral programs, their development and creation of scientific-technical for needs of the Defence System.
  • Support and ensure of scientific-technical consultations by experts for the needs of the Armaments Council and the Defence Capabilities Council.
  • Cooperation in the sphere of research works, development, testing and certification of the defence products in the frameworks of NATO, The European Union, as well as on bilateral basis and in national aspect.
  • Working out technical specifications and expertise, programs and methods for testing, as well as standardization and other documents, related with the acquisition of defence products.
  • Preparation and performance of laboratory, functional, acquisition, field and other testing of armaments, C4I systems, Military techniques, Logistic equipment and materials.
  • Treasure, acquisition and development of the departmental standards.
  • Certification of Quality Management Systems in accordance with NATO Standards, guaranteeing of the quality and assessment of the compliance during the acquisition of defence products.
  • Ensuring of air safety and flying suitability of the military aerial vehicles, as well as of the aerial vehicles of the Ministry of the Interior.
 
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
BDI, as a MoD, will contribute to all the activities directed at analysing the value system of the EU defence industry (T3.2-T3.7). Furthermore, it will be in charge of leading the validation of the results achieved in those activities (T3.8).
BDI will also contribute to project management activities, especially for what concerns the management of ethics, legal, societal and security aspects.
Additionally, BDI will disseminate the project results through internal channels into the Bulgarian MoD and Bulgarian Armed Forces, and into external channels to European Defence Agency.
Bulgarian Defence Institute "Professor Tsvetan Lazarov" - Bulgaria

Bulgarian Defence Institute "Professor Tsvetan Lazarov" is the main scientific-research, testing-design and expert-technical structure in the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian Defence Institutes' work is focused to:

  • Scientific-research activities, scientific-practical activities, development and experimental design activities in the sphere of Armaments, C4I Systems, Military Techniques, Logistic Equipment and Materials
  • Support to the Analysis of the situation of the Armaments, C4I Systems, and Military Techniques, Logistic Equipment and materials and working out of perspective prognoses on their development.
  • Support to the Integrated Project Teams through taking part in the preparation, scientific monitoring and complete implementation of the defence programs and projects.
  • Reproduction of scientific personnel through education in doctoral programs, their development and creation of scientific-technical for needs of the Defence System.
  • Support and ensure of scientific-technical consultations by experts for the needs of the Armaments Council and the Defence Capabilities Council.
  • Cooperation in the sphere of research works, development, testing and certification of the defence products in the frameworks of NATO, The European Union, as well as on bilateral basis and in national aspect.
  • Working out technical specifications and expertise, programs and methods for testing, as well as standardization and other documents, related with the acquisition of defence products.
  • Preparation and performance of laboratory, functional, acquisition, field and other testing of armaments, C4I systems, Military techniques, Logistic equipment and materials.
  • Treasure, acquisition and development of the departmental standards.
  • Certification of Quality Management Systems in accordance with NATO Standards, guaranteeing of the quality and assessment of the compliance during the acquisition of defence products.
  • Ensuring of air safety and flying suitability of the military aerial vehicles, as well as of the aerial vehicles of the Ministry of the Interior.
 
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
BDI, as a MoD, will contribute to all the activities directed at analysing the value system of the EU defence industry (T3.2-T3.7). Furthermore, it will be in charge of leading the validation of the results achieved in those activities (T3.8).
BDI will also contribute to project management activities, especially for what concerns the management of ethics, legal, societal and security aspects.
Additionally, BDI will disseminate the project results through internal channels into the Bulgarian MoD and Bulgarian Armed Forces, and into external channels to European Defence Agency.
National Defense University "Carol I" - Romania

National Defense University „Carol I" (NDU) is the highest military education institution within the Romanian Ministry of Defense, with a major role in the transformation processes of the national defense forces, in accordance with the new global security environment challenges and Romania's NATO and EU membership status. NDU is actively involved in national and international projects, providing its scientific expertise, operational knowledge and academic infrastructure in areas such as: defense, security, strategy, intelligence analysis, crisis management, conflict prevention, multinational and joint operations, counter terrorism, defense resource management, modeling and simulation, leadership, joint professional military education and training.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
NDU contributes to all the activities directed at analysing the value system of the EU defence industry (T3.2 - T3.7), while leading the analysis of naval defence systems (T3.2).
Also, as part of MoD, NDU will contribute to the validation and dissemination of SOLOMON project results.
Military University of Technology - Poland

Military University of Technology is a public technical university under Ministry of Science and Higher Education as well as Ministry of Defence. The entire university is divided into seven technical faculties. Institute of Optoelectronics (IOE) is the research institute with faculty status within the Military University of Technology. IOE activities are mainly focused on basic and applied research in the fields of optoelectronics and photonic technologies. The principal mission of the IOE is research and development related to defence and security needs defined by the Ministry of Defence (MoD). IOE activities include a wide range of undertakings, ranging from basic scientific investigations, development of laboratory models and technology demonstrators, to testing prototypes. The remarkable professional competence and experience of the staff at the IOE enables an interdisciplinary approach towards research tasks and development projects. The IOE conducts scientific research in the field of laser physics, photonics, optics, optoelectronics, security systems, spectroscopy, thermo-vision, biometrics, signal detection and the interaction of laser radiation with matter.
IOE has participated in numerous scientific collaboration programs managed by the EU, EDA, and NATO. For many years, we have had close relations with several scientific groups worldwide, in the framework of bilateral collaboration agreements. IOE is focused on permanent cooperation with industry and corresponding research institutions in EU and worldwide.
The research work of the IOE has been always accompanied by the activities in the field of education. Over recent years, the laboratory infrastructure of the IOE has seen considerable development as a result of successive investments and realizations of several projects and programs.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
WAT, as a MoD, will contribute to all the activities directed at analysing the value system of the EU defence industry (T3.2-T3.7) and validating it (T3.8). WAT will also play a major role in the analysis of the value chain related to terrestrial armament systems, as foreseen by T3.3.
Royal Military Academy - Belgium

The Royal Military Academy is a military institution of university education responsible for the academic, military and physical training of future officers, and for the continuing advanced training of officers during their active career in the Defence department. Within RMA, the Unmanned Vehicle Centre is participating to the SOLOMON proposal.
The Unmanned Vehicle Centre of the Department of Mechanics of the Belgian Royal Military Academy is a research laboratory specialized in unmanned systems, both unmanned ground vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles. The lab conducts research in varied domains, ranging from very fundamental aspects to the development of prototype products and to strategic market research.
RMA not only acts as a pure research institute, but is closely committed to the end users and has a proven track record of operating in the field with the end-users. As a military institute, RMA has access to an international network of relevant end-users (crisis management agencies, procurement agencies).

 
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
Within SOLOMON, RMA will mostly use its experience and know-how in the domain of unmanned systems as critical technologies in order to identify critical technology building blocks and possibly components for future systems and disruptive capabilities for which European technology non-dependence will be crucial, to develop a methodology to assess the supply risk of technologies and components for unmanned systems and their criticality for armed forces and the defence industry and to prepare technology roadmaps for future unmanned systems, including cost substantiated predictions, and suggest business models for selected technologies, taking into account supply risk and criticality.
  • Relevant expertise in unmanned systems
  • Relevant expertise in the exploitation of unmanned system technology and the current market
  • Relevant expertise in EU and EDA projects (see list below)
Hellenic Ministry of National Defence - Greece

The Ministry of National Defence (HMOD) is the cabinet responsible for for implementing the defence policy set by the Administration and is the headquarters of Hellenic Armed Forces. The MOD states that its principal objectives are to defend the air, land and maritime teritory and the National interests and to strengthen international peace and stability.
For the successful completion of the mission, HMOD trains and equips the armed forces through the military departments. All the nessecary procurements are planned and controlled through the HMOD and the Hellenic National Defence General Staff.
The three Military Academies Army, Naval and Air Force, the cradle of leadership, educate, train and inspire cadets so that each graduate to become officers of competence prepared to serve the country with honor and professionalism.
The Department for the Management of European & Development Projects (http://www.dideap.mil.gr/) is responsible for the coordination of actions pertaining to the formation and submission of proposals for the monitoring, control and the general management of the sum of projects carried out by the HMOD with external funding. In particular, it plans, proposes, coordinates and monitors projects and provisions that fall within the framework of Public - Private Partnerships or Operational Programs like Environment and Sustainable Development, Digital Convergence, Education and Lifelong Learning, Land Air and Maritime Surveillance Enhancement and Interdiction.

 
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
HMOD can undertake role and participate in main tasks in SOLOMON, as below:
  • Review current taxonomies regarding the military technology (T2.1)
  • Explore existing international arms export regulations regarding military items (T2.2)
  • Contribute in detection of supply taxonomy risks (T2.4)
  • Contribute in the examination of the European Defence Industry value systems/services (WP3 – all tasks)
  • Identify critical building blocks according the existing regulations (T.4.2)
  • Identify needs and goals of the EU defence industry (T4.3)
  • Contribute to test and validation procedure of SOLOMON system (T.5.5)
  • Organize dissemination and communication activities in worldwide events such as POSIDONIA (T6.2)
  • Organize validation workshops in Greek military academies (T6.2)
  • Contribute to the exploitation strategy of SOLOMON system (T6.3)
MBDA - France

MBDA is the first fully integrated pan-European Company with a single integrated management and operating structure to manage national customer interfaces and maintain strong national footprints in France, UK, Germany, Italy and Spain.
It is a leading global player in its field, capable of delivering the best and most advanced solutions to its customers, developing large joint European programs, offering its customers an unequalled range of products and services and uniting Europe's major collaborative programs. MBDA has over 70 customers in the world with an annual turnover of 3.5 billion Euros. MBDA is shared by principal EU shareholders: BAE-Systems, Airbus Group and Leonardo.
MBDA is a prime contractor for: Missile-based weapon systems, including their integration onto airborne, naval and land platforms; Airborne and land Countermeasures systems; Directed Energy weapons; Complex simulations and training systems; RF seekers and sensors; C2 solutions; Through life capability solutions.
 

MBDA is a prime contractor for: Missile-based weapon systems, including their integration onto airborne, naval and land platforms; Airborne and land Countermeasures systems; Directed Energy weapons; Complex simulations and training systems; RF seekers and sensors; C2 solutions; Through life capability solutions.
MBDA has demonstrated its ability to bring together the best skills across the whole of Europe, and has succeeded in becoming the prime contractor for a series of strategic multi-national programmes. For all these multinational programs, MBDA's unique structure has allowed it to:

  • Help customers reaching a common requirement
  • Help pooling national budgets into a unified approach, for a common objective
  • Help designing one single system addressing all the Nations' needs
  • Help enhancing interoperability though common customer support, common training solutions, and users clubs to gather lessons learned
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
MBDA will support the project and provide advices/recommendations, with focus on missile/weapon systems.
Indra Sistemas SA - Spain

Indra is one of the main global consulting and technology companies and the technological partner for the key operations of its clients' businesses throughout the world. It offers a comprehensive range of proprietary solutions and cutting-edge services with optimal technological capabilities, supported by a corporate culture of reliability, flexibility and adapting to client requirements. Indra is a world leader in the development of comprehensive technological solutions in fields such as Defence & Security, Transport & Traffic, Energy and Industry, Telecommunications & Media, Financial Services and Public Administrations & Healthcare. Through its Minsait unit it addresses the challenges posed by digital transformation. In 2017 it posted revenues above 3 billion euros and had 40,000 employees, a local presence in 46 countries and projects in more than 140 countries.
Indra has a strong commitment to innovation, as shows every year's investment in innovation (between 5%-8% of revenue per year, almost €1000m in the last five years) and the high number of R&D initiatives and projects in which the company is involved. Indra has a long history of collaboration and forging alliances with technology leaders and knowledge institutions such as Universities, Research Centres and Support Agencies, and participates in relevant large scale research and innovation programmes like Joint Technology Initiatives Advisory Groups, Associations and Technology Platforms (ARTEMIS, ECSEL, SESAR, SHIFT2RAIL, Cybersecurity cPPP; SPARC cPPP, BDV cPPP, ACARE, EOS, UNIFE, PTC-Spanish Road Platform, etc…)

Indra Defence activities are based on state of the art technologies developed for Customer needs:
  • Activities in Defence since 1921. With own technology developed along several decades.
  • More than 3,000 engineers
  • Compliance with more stringent Military Standards.
  • Extensive use of company IT background.

Indra supplies systems to the Defence and Interior Ministries of different countries across all five continents and participates in key multinational consortia and programs in the sector.

Main products and projects in Defence market are:
  • Radar systems and command and control systems for land, air and amphibious operations
  • Electronic intelligence
  • IT (for defence applications)
  • Unmanned vehicles (UAV, UVS)
  • CBRNe systems ((Nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical)
  • Countermeasure systems for aircraft (DIRCM)
  • Electro-optical systems
  • System maintenance and logistical support
  • Simulation and automatic maintenance
  • Services and solutions for the space sector
  • Cyber defence
Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
INDRA as a beneficiary (i.e. full member) of the SOLOMON consortium will mainly be involved in the development of the taxonomy used in the project and in the analysis of the value system of the EU defence industry.
Airbus Defence and Space - Germany

Airbus Defence & Space is one of the three Divisions of Airbus and Europe's Number 1 defence and space company. With revenues around €13 billion per year and approximately 33 500 employees, it is the world's second largest space company. Comprised of three business lines – Military Aircraft, Space Systems and Communication, Intelligence and Security (CIS) – Airbus brings together a wide portfolio to meet the complex needs of its customers, contribute to nations' defence and security, and enables governments, institutions and private operators to protect societies, natural resources, and individual freedom. Its portfolio assures situation awareness globally, disaster areas and sensitive sites monitoring, communication, mobility, expansion of knowledge and safeguarding of the environment.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
As Europe's largest supplier of military aircraft Airbus DS has key competences in all aspects of airborne vehicle operational requirements definition, design, integration and in-service operation. Together with its partner division Airbus Helicopter Airbus DS can also cover the section of military helicopters. Airbus' most prominent and related defence products are Eurofighter Typhoon, A400M and the upcoming Next Generation Weapon System (NGWS). In this project Airbus Defence & Space intends in the aeronautical military domain to merge the two complementary visions of grand strategy and business strategy in order to outline the possible roadmaps for tackling the supply risk of the EU armament systems in a world of changing strategies, emerging technologies and mutating government restrictions.
Thales SA - France

Thales is a world leader for mission critical information systems, with activities in five core businesses: Aeronautics, Space, Ground Transportation, Defence and Security. Thales employs 65000 people worldwide (56 countries). Thales sales was 15.6 bn€ in 2017.
In Defence, Thales is trusted at the highest levels to help armed forces prepare for, achieve and maintain tactical superiority and strategic independence over any form of threat.
From designing smart sensors and advanced defence systems, to developing collaborative combat, and connecting and equipping soldiers on the digital battlefield, Thales systems deliver information superiority and give joint forces mastery of action whenever they face their decisive moments.
Some 25,000 Thales employees, over 70% of them engineers, are involved in the Group's technical operations, ranging from research to engineering. In 2017, Thales spent €797 million (5% of sales) purely on self- funded R&D, an essential lever to remain competitive.
Governance of research and development for key technologies is split into four domains hardware technologies, software technologies, information and cognitive sciences and systems.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
In SOLOMON, Thales will act through its corporate technical directorate which includes the above four key technological domains and the corporate research centers, the main one being Thales Research & Technology – France in Palaiseau near Paris.
THA as a beneficiary (i.e. full member) of the SOLOMON consortium will mainly be involved in the development of the taxonomy used in the project and in the analysis of the value system of the EU defence industry.
Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co. KG - Germany

KMW is the producer of all types of military Land Systems (e.g. MBT, AFV, Artillery Systems …)

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
Stocktaking of dependencies inside and outside Europe especially in the Land System domain.
Romanian Space Agency - Romania

Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) Independent public institution legal person fully self-financed, organized by the Government Decision no.923/1995 and defined by Law no.500/2002, in the system of the Ministry of Education and Research. Themain mission of ROSA is to promote, coordinate and develop space research and applications programs/projects in Romania and to represent the Government in relevant international cooperation agreements. ROSA established cooperation agreements with international organizations such as EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA) or the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), as well as bilateral cooperation agreements at governmental level. Together with the Ministry of External Affairs, ROSA represents Romania at the sessions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space — COPUOUS and its subcommittees. ROSA is the coordinator organization of the Research, Development and Innovation STAR Programme - Space Technology and Advanced Research for the period 2012-2019, approved by Law no. 262/2011 - the tool which provides national support for implementing the Agreement between Romania and the European Space Agency (ESA) on Romania's accession to the ESA Convention. ROSA develops its own research and development projects and centers. The ROSA Research Centre has been established in 1998 and is developing since 2000 as a centre of excellence. It's acting as project integrator and developer in the main areas of space research and technology: space science, Earth observation, global navigation satellite systems, space dynamics, space applications for agriculture, disaster management, space information systems, space infrastructure development. The research in ROSA is project-oriented.
The overall objectives are to produce science and technology, to transfer the results to the users and to generate physical and human infrastructure – capacity building.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
ROSA as a beneficiary (i.e. full member) of the SOLOMON consortium will mainly be involved in the development of the taxonomy used in the project and in the analysis of the value system of the EU defence industry.
Lt.Gen. Leonardo LESO - Italy

Curriculum vitae
Lt.Gen. (res.) Leonardo LESO is President of the private security company SKP Consulting. His job is to study and prepare military security operational plans and training programmes thanks to his great experience and high professional skills.
Studies
Lt.Gen. LESO completed his pre-university schooling at the "F. Morosini" Naval Military School in Venice, and later attended the Military Academy in Modena and Carabinieri Officers School in Rome. A law and security graduate by the Naples and Rome universities, he also attended various specialized military courses in Italy and abroad (ranger, antiterrorism, urban close combat and negotiation/mediation and NATO Defence College for flag officers). He is a special force master parachutist and earned para wings from the United States and other NATO armies.
Decorations Lt.Gen. LESO received many Italian and foreign decorations, among these: the U.S.A. Legion of Merit, the Silver Medal of Merit of the Slovenian Armed Forces, the Gold Cross of Merit and the Bronze Medal of Value of the Italian Army and the highest Knight's Cross of the Italian Military Order.

Role and main tasks in SOLOMON
Lt.Gen. Leonardo Leso will leverage on his large and deep knowledge of military services delivered at the international level, either in public (as Carabinieri high officer) and in private (as President of SKP Consulting) sector organisations. He will consequently lead T3.7.

Stakeholders

SOLOMON project, complementary to the PYTHIA project, has received funding from the European Union's Preparatory Action on Defence Research under grant agreement No 831379.
The information contained in this document reflects only the author's view and the European Defence Agency is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains